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Tuesday, August 27, 2019

Computer and our future

Computer and our future:

 The computer is probably the most versatile invention of all time. It is increasingly affecting our lives. The world of science is a magical world brimming with wonderful inventions and discoveries. In the chain of scientific revolutionary intentions, computer is a remarkable addition. Its unusual nature and unique functions present yet another confirmatory test to prove that in he world of today, from womb to tomb science plays a dominant role. Man has made an extraordinary progress in the world as a shelter less creature. Today, he rules the wold. He has now nearly overcome the backwardness and superstitousness. He is unlocking the mysteries of the universe. And, like several other scientific inventions the computers are serving the humankind in multidimensional ways. The history of the evolution of the computer tells us an interesting story.

History Of Computer:

 The abacus was the first digital device invented by the Babylonians over four thousands years ago. The abacus could be used for all arithmetic functions. The next advance in computing occurred in 1642, when Pascal invented an adding machine, but it could only add; a later mechanical calculator invented by Leibniz in the eighteen century could also multiply, divide and subtract. However, these machines did not function very well, as at that time, the technological advancement was not up to mark.

Charles Babbage:

 Charles Babbage, an English mathematician of nineteenth century, who was the first to conceive of a machine that could carry out complicated calculations automatically. After this an electric tabulating device called the "census machine" was developed by Herman Hollerith in 1885. Hollerith's machine required considerable human intervention, but it worked effectively.

First Generation Of Computer:

 During 1940s, the first completely automatic digital computer, the Mark 1, was invented by "Howard Aiken" the first electronic digital computers, however, were the Altanasoff-Berry computer and "ENIAC". In a 1945 paper, John Neuman presented two new ideas in computer design, which helped develop the more than before.

First generations computer were huge machine that used vacuum tubes. The vacuum tubes used more electricity and become hot thousands of vaccum tubes needs AC(air conditions) to cool it.These computer were not portable and their is need of constant maintenance. These computer used machine language and person must know the machine language to operate it.

Second Generation Of Computer:

 Now its time for second generation computer vacuum tubes are replaced with transistor. The size of computer decrease and speed of computer a little  increases. These computer consumes less energy than first generation computer.This generation is much better than first generation computer, But there are some problems which needs to improve the computer.

Non portable, Large size, AC(air-conditions) are required to cool it, constant maintenance was required.

Third Generation of Computer:

 In third generation computer transistor were replaced by the integrated circuit, or silicon chip. The use of chips allowed minicomputers and microcomputer to be developed. Another third generation development was the idea of a family of computers, of different sizes, all compatible with each other. The third generation computer was much much better than first and second generation computer but there are some fault which need to be handle or remove and there is need to improve the quality of computer like speed, storage, versatility, size and performance so scientists work on it and developed much faster computer know as fourth generation computer.

Fourth Generation Of Computer:

The fourth generation silicon chip is about the size of finger, but is faster and more powerful than the huge first generation computers. The microcomputer with its compact size, ease of use, large and growing capabilities and low cost is more characteristics of the fourth generation, but all computers of today belong to the fourth generation.

Fifth Generation Of Computers:

Fifth generation computers are based on Artificial Intelligence(AI) and are currently being discover and also some type of AI has been discovered. Scientist are trying to made computer with Artificial Intelligence. Much of this work is focused on solving problems is natural Language processing, artificial intelligence and VLSI (Very large scale integration). Fifth generation computers are generally based on store and process knowledge base instead of data. 

Future Of Computer:

Computer obviously can quickly process the results of scientific experiments. They can also be utilized to simulate model objects and model worlds, for example, if a computer models world population, planners can do an experiments to test an effects of increasing the birth rate by 10 per cent. Computer graphics can be used to illustrate the the model, and designers can look at such things at the effects of wind resistance on various car design.

Present technology robots can do multidimensional task, but they cannot resound to their environment very well. A rebirth must be able to "see", "feel", and "hear" to truly useful, to help, to be able to changes in the robot's environment. A robot that work as spray painter in an automobile factory would create quite a mess if the car it imagines it is spraying is not there.

Robot and computer are much important if they could learn from experience.

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